This image shows the use of goosenecks. The newel post in the center of the image illustrates how a gooseneck is used to get the railing to rise up but not travel any distance putting it at the level of the railing exiting on the other side of the same post starting the next run of railing. The newel post is sitting on the landing putting the top square of the newel post inline for the next run of railing to start out from it, however that leaves the railing coming in from the run below at the old stair level. If you were to project the railing straight into the newel post you would see that it would terminate at the bottom portion of the square. It is the gooseneck that catches the end of that run of railing and raises it up to meet the next run leaving the newel post. A gooseneck give a railing rise without causing it to travel. The newel post square also provides the rise if you chose not to use the gooseneck however goosenecks and an interesting visual element to a run of railing. Because this is a newel post to newel post system the gooseneck could have been omitted but then the effect is lost.
Image id: Maple8-2
Railing: #4
Balusters: turned 1 3/4" Standard #1
Newl Posts: turned 3 1/2" Standard#1
Stairs: Straight C1S closed rise in maple 1 1/8" tread, 2 1/4" stringer 
@ Finishing Touches -